It is a statement, assertion, or proposition of which the truth or falsity can be ascertained. In other words, the characters have no other weapon than words, or their opposite, the withholding of words. It also plays an important role in defining the qualities of the Racinian character what they are internally and the following postulations by Levinas can be applied to these participants in drama, both victims and aggressors: In the s, as we have seen, all Stend- hal could muster for Racine was cool admiration, not the tears earlier audiences had shed. The major passions found in Racinian drama that are of interest to this study are ambition, hatred, love and jealousy. The result is usually the same: There was simply this consuming de- sire, which served as a perverse and universal human motivator.

Conclusion In this chapter, we discussed how Racinian characters abuse language that is to say use language for their own purposes through rhetoric to inflict suffering upon others. Having set the scene for the creation of Racinian tragedy, in the next chapter, we shall proceed to a detailed analysis of the incidence of aggression and the factors that influence the relationships between victims and aggressors in his tragedy. We will also study the influence of seventeenth-century ideas about human nature with a view to understanding what informed the presentation of violence in his plays. In other words, the characters have no other weapon than words, or their opposite, the withholding of words. Both external factors the environment or the lieu and internal factors passion help shape the discourse of the characters, who will ultimately use language as a tool in both creating and depicting aggression and persecution. They can be easily classified into categories according to their competencies, their treacherous personality or the situation that leads to such manipulation of language, and so forth.

dissertation bérénice 1670

Her fall will be complete when she can use only words. Bérénicee unnaturalness 51 P. Maybe our bourgeois world demands grit and realism, whereas aristocratic audiences of the time expected entertainments more cer- emonial, more stylized, disciplined by classical doctrine. Etudes sur le romantisme This is because Levinas calls for the establishment of ethical relationships of caring and compassion with others and rhetoric is seen as essentially self-centred.


And He has not killed his mother, his wife, his tutors but he has in him all the seeds of these crimes. The spectator is constantly reminded of the omnipresence of violence through the use of vocabulary specifically connoting violence and suffering.

This creation of a violent context is also found in Andromaque and Britannicus. The victim-aggressor relationship is based on some form of power balance and this power is used to the advantage of those who possess it to make impossible demands on disertation under their dominion.

The frequent use of this term heightens the sense of danger or impending danger that is felt throughout the play.

dissertayion What obligates us is the fact dissetration the Other sees the world from a different perspective. To illustrate this, we will use the following quotation from Reilly: Oxford University Press, Those sentences, meanwhile, are often left unfinished, as characters trail off or are interrupted. She uses her new-found power to persecute him for not returning her love: In this section, we have attempted to show the importance of space as a conditioning element of Racinian socialisation.

The drama ensues from a situation where different sets of characters envisage different conclusions and, in general terms, tragedy arises from the conflict of those conclusions.

racine berenice resume

Levinas asserts that though they may lead to predatory acts and evil consequences, human passions, natural drives and instincts are not evil in themselves. It shows the individual subjected to overpowering forces, including transcendence, passion and tyranny.

dissertation bérénice 1670

Ere the dissertatioh set let him be gone from Rome. We will now focus our attention on the study of power as a vehicle that facilitates aggression in Racinian drama.

racine berenice resume

She is equally aware of the impossibility of her position and bérénicd the fact that despite her power and the criminal nature of her love, she must continue to love Bajazet who encourages her passion until he cannot bring himself to continue feigning affection for her, thereby putting his life in jeopardy.


Drama had to be believable: She loves him, but the question she dsisertation answered is whether he wants to marry her. Stanford University Press, This monster is essentially fluid in nature because, in spite of its otherness, it cannot be separated entirely from the nature of the character himself. This is how Racine illustrates the fate of characters who possess essentially human characteristics which we see through mimesis.

It was, however, safely quarantined within reprehensible characters—bad examples, or more accurately nega- tive exemplars, whom we could look upon in moral horror, and who in any event had little trouble articulating the evil in their breast. To which he answers: Bajazet does not have much choice faced with Roxane who considers his heart as her due: Much critical energy was expended in the following century to distance tragedy from anything that smacked of the rhetorical arts.

(PDF) Racine, Phèdre, and the French Classical Stage | Nicholas Paige –

The Racinian characters are unwilling to establish such ethical relationships; they are constantly planning to persecute others, as we see in dissettation following example from Bajazet: Narcisse himself manipulates others to promote his own interests and does not let himself be deceived by anything or anyone. The second act is sending Pallas into exile. For Levinas, desire has a metaphysical significance: As a result of the link between space and passion, we see that Racine does not often give his characters the choice to escape the dangerous presence of the object of their desire.

Racine uses a meticulously chosen and finely tuned vocabulary to portray the extent of this tragic dilemma and to illustrate the violence that permeates the various Acts of his drama.